If you have ever been hospitalized, you probably have been administered infusion solution
at least once.
An infusion solution contains water, electrolytes and nutrients such as glucose and amino acids necessary for the human body. How much do you know about infusion solutions?
Learn about the definition and types of infusion solutions and their manufacturing process.
Definition of infusion solution
The amount of water in the human body ranges from 50 to 60% for adults and more than 90% for infants. The amount of water in the body must be maintained at an appropriate level to ensure good physical balance and regulation. If it decreases by 1 to 2% due to diseases or accidents, the body will send a warning signal such as thirst and headache. In case of a 10% drop, severe dehydration symptoms will occur and these include dramatic reduction in the brain and heart functions. A 20% decrease in the amount of water is life-threatening.
Generally, people intake the necessary liquids and nutrients by eating and drinking. However, in the event of a health problem, infusion solutions are administered to supply the necessary water and nutrients intravenously.
Types of Infusion Solutions
There are three types of infusion solutions that are divided based on their ingredients and functions, and they are the basic IV fluids and nutrient and special infusion solutions.
- The basic
The basic IV fluid contains water, electrolytes and glucose, which are essential for sustaining a person’s life. The solution is comprised of physiological saline solution and glucose solution in which the dissolved substances are in similar concentrations as the blood concentrations. The word, “physiological,” in the name, physiological saline solution, means that it has the same osmotic pressure as the blood concentration, while “saline” means that the solution contains salt that is superior in quality than the edible kind. Nutrients such as glucose and amino acids are added into the mixture. If it reads “5% glucose,” it means 5g glucose has been dissolved in 100mL of water.
Because this solution has the same osmotic pressure as that of the blood, it does not cause any pain in the blood vessels even after prolonged administration. In addition to its original purpose of supplying water and electrolytes, it is also used as a dilution solution in which IV drugs are diluted for administration.
Nutrient infusion solution contains nutrients such as amino acids, lipids, proteins, vitamins and minerals to be supplied to patients, who cannot eat food for a long time. Amino acid solutions and lipid solutions in varying concentrations and high-concentration glucose solutions belong to this category.
Although glucose and amino acid solutions should be administered to the patient simultaneously, if they were physically mixed together, discoloration occurred after long hours. Until the mid-1990s, glucose and amino acid solutions were prepared individually for the patient concerned inside a clean room at a general hospital. In order to eliminate such inconvenience, glucose and amino acids began to be provided in two separate chambers, and the membrane between the chambers was to be torn for the contents to mix together right before their use. This was called the “One Touch Two Bag” system, and this system was applied to develop Combiplex, an infusion solution product using the 2-chamber system for the first time in Korea.
Lipids have been drawing attention recently as an important nutrient required by the body. Accordingly, a 3-chamber system under the name, lipid-based TPN, was developed to supply amino acids, lipids and glucose to patients. This product supplies more sufficient calories and essential fatty acids, which was impossible with the conventional 2-chamber system, and it is being widely used today.
Special infusion solution is used in special cases where infusion solutions that cannot be classified as either basic or nutrient infusion solutions are used. For instance, brain hemorrhage caused by a car accident results in the pooling of blood inside the skull, which in turn increases the intracranial pressure. In this case, a special infusion solution containing Cerol inj Serol and Mannitol Choongwae inj Manitol helps eliminate blood from the brain very quickly. When performing an operation on a person who is experiencing heavy bleeding due to a car accident, an infusion solution containing plasma expanders is used to maintain the blood volume at a consistent level to prevent any risks to the patient. Other special infusion solutions the one that contains a small amount of electrolyte additives and a perfusate that is used to rinse off blood and disinfect the area during operation.
Infusion Solution Manufacturing Process
The 13 steps are as follows
- store distilled water
- measure the raw materials
- cap assembly
- bag shaping and printing
- cap welding, attachment of aluminum film and packaging
- post-delivery receipt
Because infusion solutions are directly injected into the blood vessels of patients, they are manufactured via complex processes and are subject to strict quality control.
Life-saving Water: A Story of Infusion Solutions
There are countless children whose precious lives are cut short as a result of diarrhea. The typical amount of water in a normal human being accounts for 50-60% of the total body weight, and severe water loss can be life-threatening. In this case, infusion solutions can replenish the body with the much needed water and save the person’s life.
Hear the story of infusion solutions from JW Life Science, specializing in the life-saving infusion solutions.
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